Tuesday, August 26, 2008

Blog resurrection, Part XI

Cripes, this starts out dry and weird but gets mean and juicy there at the end.

This is probably my longest post yet, its my BIO-PSYCH paper. Since Mike said I didn't have anything worthwhile to write about. Well, no longer!

Character and Effectiveness of Bupropion as an
Atypical Antidepressant and Anti Smoking Aid

I: Introduction
America is a country riddled with health problems. 9.9 million people suffer from Major Depressive Disorder and another 2.3 million with Bipolar disorder. These figures total to about 6.2 percent of the entire population (numbers count, 2003). In addition the number of smokers is an incredibly high figure. In 2001, there were an estimated 46.2 million current smokers above the age of 18. This same group consumed 425 billion cigarettes (2,037 per capita of the population above the age of 18.) An average of about 440,000 people died per year on between 1995-1999 due to smoking related causes(trends in tobacco use, 2002). This is a fairly chilling reminder of how serious a threat smoking currently is. Both smoking and depression share a common treatment called Bupropion Hydrochloride. Marketed as Zyban and Wellbutrin (also as generic Bupropion) this drug offers hope for treatment of depression and nicotine addiction without the serious side effects associated with typical anti-depressants.
IIa: Biology Aspects
Traditional anti-depressants have an understood target and an understood effect on particular neurotransmitters. Tricyclic anti-depressants prevent the reuptake of serotonin and catecholamines. SSRI’s only target serotonin and MAOI’s prevent the metabolization of serotonin and catecholamines in the pre-synaptic terminal. Bupropion acts as an agonist towards dopamine and norepinephrine (Daviss et al, 2001).
Not only is the unusual (hence, atypical) chemical result surprisingly effective it is also very low in serious side effects. Unlike more traditional medication, the side effects are generally mild and rarely preclude a stoppage of treatment (Buckley, 2003). It should be noted that in some people bupropion increased the likelihood of seizures. Also, in rare cases, it can worsen facial tics. (Daviss et al, 2001) This makes it an attractive alternative to the sexual side effects, problematic to SSRI’s, for treatment of depression. There are no other medications currently offered in pill form for smoking cessation or generalized nicotine addiction on the market.
How does a single chemical do all that? Unfortunately no one knows exactly how bupropion utilizes to produce the effects on dopamine and norepinephrine. A great deal is understood about the chemical itself however.
IIb: Chemistry
Bupropion’s chemical name is (+)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]-1-propanone hydrochloride (C13H18ClNO HCl). Its molecular weight is 276.2. The drug is a white powder usually dosed at 100mg, 150mg or 200mg per pill. The structure of the bupropion molecule, which resembles phenylethylamines, is illustrated in figure 1.

Figure 1
The Structure of Bupropion

Bupropion is chemically distant from its predecessors. Serotonin, for example, is commonly understood to have a great effect on mood. Lack of normal serotonin levels is associated with both depression and trouble sleeping. Production of tryptophan is the limiting factor in serotonin production but normal amounts are made more effective by SSRI’s. (Evans et al, 2002) This would seem to indicate a causal relationship, but it is merely a very strong correlation. Bupropion has no effect on the production, absorption or metabolization of serotonin and still produces positive effects similar to SSRI’s.
So knowing what we do about the chemical itself and its effects implies, as with all drugs, that there is an empirical process occurring which produces these effects. Knowledge of the exact nature of this process is not fully understood but there is a good deal of information on a general level.
IIIa: Known Effects in Animals
Before human testing is even considered animals are subjected to variously cruel and necessary treatment to determine safety and effectiveness. One such measure, the forced swimming test, pitted bupropion against fluoxetine (generic Prozac, an SSRI) and the selective neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist GR 205171. Each rat was given a drug then placed in the FS tank. The dependent variable was immobility time during the last few minutes of the time period(cite). Logically a despairing animal will give up and drown, whereas a normal or less depressed rat will continue to swim for a longer time. Results showed that noradrenaline and dopamine levels were increased in both bupropion and fluoxetine. Specifically bupropion enhanced the catecholamines. GR 205171 had no measurable effect on relevant neurotransmitters but all drugs showed a decrease in immobility time. It should be noted that the samples were quite small (n=4-5) and further studies in this matter have not been published.
IIIb: Known Effects in Humans
Another study employed positron emission tomography to better understand the activity of bupropion and its effect on the human dopamine transporter. Previous data has shown that in many previous animal studies there was indeed activity at the dopamine transporter. Metabolites of bupropion (hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion) have been shown to inhibit dopamine reuptake in rats and mice. Other effects studied included a reduction in brain stem dopamine neurons in rats; and an increase of dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens and striatum also in rats. One problem with the animal studies was the differential in dose and therapeutic effect between animals and people. The amount needed to create therapeutic effects is much less in people than other species tested. In order to be made more fully aware how, and perhaps why, dopamine transporters were affected, the study would center only on visible increases in brain activity.
Using a radioligand dye to illuminate the binding activity in six healthy male subjects yielded data about the concentration of inhibitory effects on striatal dopamine transporters. All subjects were not diagnosed with any disease nor under the influence of any drug which might have skewed normal dopamine levels and activity. Interestingly enough bupropion was shown to occupy dopamine transporters in above normal levels in this region. Another type of drug that occupies the same transporters is cocaine. However, bupropion occupies only an approximate 25% whereas cocaine is shown to affect 65-75%. The time extent is also much different, cocaine being relatively short-lived and bupropion sustaining its activity for at least 24 hours.
This data indicates the nature and extent of the drugs effect. It also strengthens the view that there is little potential for abuse(cited). Low addiction is an appealing and reassuring quality for a drug that treats both depression and smoking. Nicotine is of course highly addictive and many people with depressive and mood disorders have concomitant drug issues as well. Potential users should be comforted that this will not result in an addiction substitution. Heroine, arguably the most addictive drug, got its name because it was supposed to wean people off of morphine addiction. There should not be a repeat with bupropion hydrochloride.
Insight into the mystery of this atypical anti-depressant was suggested by the authors of this study. They believe that low synaptic concentrations of dopamine cause down regulation of the dopamine transporter. If true, dopamine binding drugs may derive their value by clearing extracellular dopamine and increasing synaptic concentrations of it(cite1). Major depressives have a lower dopamine binding potential than healthy subjects, so these data sound appealing. However, this is probably not the whole story. Bupropion is also a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. At standard doses the total norepinephrine turnover was reduced. That there was no decline of norepinephrine in the plasma implies it was not just a simple reduction. The unique properties of the drug have still not been unraveled entirely.
IV Effectiveness
Just how effective is bupropion? The following section will focus on the depression aspect and subsequently smoking cessation will be addressed.
IVa: Bupropion for Treating Depression.
The need for successful anti-depressant drugs with low levels of negative side effects becomes more apparent every year. More cases are being reported and alarmingly the mean age of people with depressive disorders is decreasing. Considerations for why this is happening aside, the need for some kind of fix (until society can be rewired to better prevent and diagnose such problems) is critical.
One problem is that the reasons for depression are not entirely understood. Previous drugs might have implied it was a simple case of low serotonin levels or overly active reuptake mechanisms. This cannot be entirely true. Symptoms of depression manifest themselves in many different ways. Obviously there are both environmental and genetic factors to consider. The number of depressed people could be far greater than the population already diagnosed. No single physiological mechanism, that we know of, has been found in depressed people and not in normal people. Unlike other diseases, there is no bacteria or virus to track down and eliminate. Depression is dangerous because it is both widespread and poorly understood. Treatment however can help, whether we understand entirely or not.
A study conducted in 2002 looked at the therapeutic effects of Bupropion Sustained Release vs placebo on mood and anxiety symptoms. This is the first study to ascertain the effectiveness based on the tripartite model of mood. Logic for using a broader scale comes from the nature of drugs. A given drug may produce a variety of effects and understanding what those effects are and how they relate requires testing a spectrum of symptoms. Without a simulacrum of lateral inhibition to enhance our understanding we simply include as much as possible. This study looks at the effects on nineteen individuals of bupropion on general distress, level of anhedonia/positive affect and somatic anxiety.
General distress is related to both depression and anxiety disorders. Anhedonia is associated with depression and not anxiety. Somatic anxiety is related to panic disorder and not tied to depression. The hypothesis was that bupropion would increase incentive motivation and positive affect more than symptoms of anxiety (relative to placebo.) All participants were outpatients for recurrent major depression according to the DSM-IV. None were taking psychotropic drugs for a week before hand. There were also no comorbid disorders that might skew results.
The results showed in favor of bupropion for treatment of major depression. Relative to placebo there was a steeper decline in anhedonic symptoms. According to the MASQ, GDD and the HAM-D-17 the effects on depressive symptoms were generally improved. Results are comparable to drugs with serotonergic effects and significantly greater than placebo. An interesting result of this study showed that bupropion more sharply decreased negative affect (as opposed to increasing positive affect.) Over time the positive affect items were improved as well.
At first there was little distinction in anxiety between the test and control groups. Declining anxiety in both groups was more likely the result of treatment or another variable independent of the drug’s effects. It would seem that placebo effects were greater for the anxiety symptoms than the depressive ones. The findings seem favorable for treatment of depression and increasing positive affect. Greater sample sizes should be used to replicate these results however.
IVb: Bupropion for Depression Relapse.
It seems a fairly reasonable assessment to say that bupropion is an effective treatment of depression. The logical next step question would be ‘but is there a cure?’ Unfortunately the first long term trial of bupropion SR shows that a relapse can be prevented for a time but not entirely without some sort of intervention on the patient’s behalf.
This leads to two possible courses of action. Continuing treatment would be one way to maintain normal functioning. Discontinuation might show no further adverse effects, but the potential for relapse makes this a risky course of action. Problems associated with continuation are tolerability and safety. Safety will be addressed more in depth later. Tolerability seems to be the distinguishing factor among the main anti-depressant drugs on the market. With comparable efficacy, it is not the presence of positive effects but the absence of negative ones which decides what will be treated and what won’t. After all, people take drugs because they don’t want to be depressed, but if the drugs accomplish this at some other equal or greater expense then people will refuse to take them. As many as 30% of outpatients for depression are believed to discontinue their medication.
There has been a good deal of research on the short term safety and effectiveness of bupropion but little or no long-term research to guarantee its viability as a continuation phase treatment. Growing popularity for atypical anti-depressants and waning interest in seratonergic drugs made this study relevant. To guarantee credibility a sample of 423 participants out of an original 828 participated through one year of treatment. Demographic differences were controlled for between the test and control groups.
Predictably those participants taking bupropion SR had a lower rate of relapse and a longer time for those that did relapse. By the end of the year there was a statistically significant difference between number of patients requiring intervention for a relapse. Placebo subjects were nearly twice as likely (1.83x) to relapse than those receiving the medication. Tolerability proved to be high. Only 16% reported the most common side effect, which was headache. There were no clinically significant differences in weight gain, systolic/diastolic blood pressure or resting pulse rate(cite, 2002.)
So it appears that while there is no cure for depression, yet, there is a strong hope that continued medication will prevent a relapse. Wellbutrin allows this to be a possibility without running the risk of serious side effects or health concerns. It is very important to note that, even with medication, 37% of participants still experienced a relapse necessitating intervention. Drugs alone are not the only solution to depressed patients, care and attention are and probably will be just as important as medicine.
Va: Bupropion as a Smoking Cessation Aid
However odd it seems, the mechanisms for Zyban the anti-smoking pill and the anti-depressant Wellbutrin are exactly the same and yet each drug is effective for both purposes. Pure curiosity makes this connection a tantalizing one. Whether there is some connection between the nicotine addiction or the mind set that leads to smoking is unclear. In fact, there is almost no data for why bupropion works, only that it does. Perhaps withdrawl and depression are linked. I think the likeliest connection has to do with either the norepinephrine and dopamine actions and the mechanism of withdrawl itself. Some evidence or at least basis for a hypothesis could be related to the similar but diminished effects of that bupropion shares with cocaine and other dopamine blockers.
It is known that in-patient treatment of smokers that are not trying to quit receive the anti-depressant benefit of bupropion. Clear evidence does not exist for whether a similar effect occurs in smokers taking bupropion who are trying to quit. Researchers hypothesized that quitters treated with Zyban 300mg would experience less severe withdrawl symptoms. This study included seven sessions of counseling in addition to the medication.
At the end of the study 72% of the placebo participants and 52% of the drug patients reported a return to smoking by the end of eight weeks. This is a significant difference. In terms of negative affect the bupropion participants decreased while the placebo group increased by seven times as much as the drug group decreased. This implies that withdrawl symptoms were modulated by the effects of bupropion. With such a limited measure of withdrawl severity (ie change in negative affect) it is hard to draw inferences beyond ‘bupropion is effective for smokers who smoke to relieve negative affect.’(cite mediating mechanisms, 2002)
Another, long term and better controlled, study was completed shortly after the previous one. Many of the conditions were similar to the long term study on depression so I have omitted some of the details. It is of note that this study was done in eight countries at a total of twenty six centers. Treatment included bupropion SR in conjunction with counseling visits and phone calls.
The pills used were manufactured in Zebulon, North Carolina.(cite tonnesen)
The definition for smoking cessation employed was abstinence beginning at the end of the seven week treatment phase and in subsequent time until the year was up. Though drug treatment ended after only 2 months, monthly counseling services were maintained during the trial period for abstinence.
Results were similar in magnitude for the initial anti-smoking treatment and the long term continuation phase treatment for depression. Though nearly twice as many drug participants were successful the figures ~46% and ~23% are hardly astounding. Side effects reported were also similar, as is to be expected, relating to weight gain, withdrawl symptoms and adverse events. Curiously, there was a higher incidence of negative effects in the drug group (29%) than in the placebo group (12%.) Side effects leading to discontinuation were 8% and 6% for the drug and placebo groups respectively. All told, the long term effects of bupropion help but do not guarantee success in the attempt to quit smoking.

Section VI: Side Effects and Dangers Associated
Though its predecessors are plagued with side effects, some arguably as bad or worse than depression, bupropion is not a totally innocent drug either. Most side effects are mild and infrequent but there are some that make Wellbutrin and Zyban an impractical option.
Most popular among the more serious side effects is the increased rate of seizure in approximately 1/1000 people on the standard dose of 300mg per day. The drug does not actually cause the seizure to happen. Bupropion lowers the seizure threshold, making the likelihood of a seizure greater. Other anti-depressant, anti-psychotic and systemic steroids also lower threshold and this presents a danger of negative interaction. Also, taking both Zyban and Wellbutrin is unsafe because of the higher than standard dose. At that amount the seizure rate is higher, but a specific figure was not given.
Other complications can occur from the combination of bupropion and other psychotropic drugs as well as preexisting psychosis. Activation of latent psychosis or induction of mania can pose a threat to a person’s mental health. In some depressed patients, they reported delusions, hallucinations, paranoia and various other side effects. Most abated after a reduction in dosage or stoppage of treatment. The similarity of these side effects to schizophrenic symptoms is not entirely unexpected. It is scary though.
One of the most common side effects was mild insomnia. Nearly 40% of participants reported some degree of insomnia. Only .6% discontinued use as a result. (Cite zyban prescribe)
Another sleep related side effect relates to bupropion and REM sleep. It has been shown that treatment with bupropion decreases the latency of REM onset. Also, there is an increase in both REM time and REM percent. To date, bupropion is one of the very few anti-depressents that does not suppress REM sleep. While this may seem encouraging, or at least not harmful, there have been anecdotal reports of increased dream and nightmare intensity as well.
One of the rare and unfortunate events associated with bupropion is the potential for death. In 1998-1999 there were 5 separate cases involving death by bupropion. Each of the cases was suspected to be suicide with an unknown amount. Though each of the five cases involved various symptoms they were all associated with bupropion-only exposure. During the same period there were 3 deaths associated with bupropion and ethanol consumption. It should be noted that all of these deaths are extremely rare and bizarre cases. The vast majority suffer no ill side effects that are harmful enough to preclude treatment.
VII: Who Should use Bupropion?
This is a good question that only a qualified medical personage or council can answer and even then there is no clear cut evidence to show just how safe or effective it is. Plenty of evidence for positive effects in the short term exist. None for long term, in the scope of decades, exist. Cigarette smoking for example was not linked to so many health problems, at least not by everyone, for many hundreds of years.
On a more practical scope it seems very likely that bupropion is safe enough for nearly everyone not taking drugs with harmful interactions. Other cases should be examined, but the general population of depressed patients is likely to experience great relief with few side effects.
Special cases, as in military personnel, should require further study on effects of total human performance. One study showed no visible decline in psychomotor performance among 24 military participants.(cite abstract). The results were in favor of use though they stipulated close observation. In an environment as stressful, and with as many smokers, as military life it is a wonder they aren’t issuing it along with M-16's and K rations.

VIII: Conclusion
The many effects and side effects make this a promising drug of vast importance and potential. It may not be a magic bullet for depression or nicotine addiction like penicillin was. But then again it could possibly give us the insight that would allow us to develop or discover even more potent drugs to treat, prevent and someday cure both depression and nicotine withdrawl. Until then, bupropion meets my personal approval as both a researcher and a user.

posted by Seth # 8:07 PM

Amazing what you can find if you turn one page further...some people might not understand the following post, but its a couple of verses from the bible that make me tingle. Psalm 54 has been my second favorite part, after ecclesiastes, since the days of half-gf Hailey. Enjoy it.

Save me, O God, by your name
And vindicate me by your might
Hear my prayer, O God;
give ear to the words of my mouth.

For the insolent,
have risen against me,
the ruthless seek my life;
they do not set God before them.

But surely, God is my helper;
the Lord is the upholder of my life
He will repay my enemies for their evil.
In your faithfulness, put an end to them.

With a freewill offering
I will sacrifice to you;
I give thanks to your name,
O Lord, for it is good.

For he has delivered me from every trouble
and my eye has looked in triumph on my enemies.

Righteous, Glorious, Mighty and Majestic isn't it? At the time of my deepest religious fervor I could feel the immense feeling of 'right' whenever I said this. To those that didn't know, and I don't believe anyone really did, I recited this in my head every single swim meet senior year in HS.

But later when I felt my faith falter and later still when it fled from my heart and more importantly my head, it still stirs up something. Read it again but from my point of view. It encompasses the great duality of those who have fought a close battle with God and barely won or lost. Those who lose get what they call 'the zeal of the convert' because they have to try extra hard to justify their faith.

On the other hand you get me, those who struggle long and hard against the great burden of not knowing what is right or what is good only to cast off every previous preconception except for one. The new model of Evil isn't a complete about-face, there are still wicked and good people. The difference, I can see them clearly now.

In my world my father is a great man who has saved and improved the lives of countless people. An entire town knows him by name, face or reputation. Considering this, as well as teaching me a great deal about the ways of the world, I would put him pretty close to the top of the totem pole.

The Old model claims otherwise. Becaues earthly deeds don't matter if you don't believe in Jesus or God. But hey, that's ok, because people can be easily deluded into thinking they are a good person despite all evidence to the contrary. Everyone deep down wants to think they're a good person, or at least 'i'm not such a bad guy/girl.' But all these people are not right, most are wrong and almost none of them realize it in time to change. Maybe they do and don't act on it, whatever. Pointing this back on track we get to heaven and hell.

According to the Old model my dad is going to hell. So am I, but I know i'm kind of a fuck head. So lets look at the rationale here. Murderers, thieves, rapists, and drug dealing freak shows are all going to hell with my dad. Don't get snippy, that's the common thread. Oh wiat, i forgot to mention everyone else that isn't a Christian also.

Now, who gets to go to heaven. The least imaginative, the least able and the least willing to lend a hand on earth! Consider the model fanatic/crusade kid/young lifer...what makes you a good Christian? A deep and devoted love of God, I respect that as long as its tied to reason and restraint or otherwise you get the moral majority and a bunch of fat whiny fags stealing from the middle class and the elderly.

Ah, you know me, i could go on forever. But instead, i'm gonna finish my paper, get a good night's sleep, and get up tomorrow morning...and if you can't go on without god then i strongly suggest you leave the world and your chemicals behind for better purposes...like fertilizer.

Night y'all.
posted by Seth # 9:38 PM
Try to stand still and the world moves on without you. Sometimes it just stops and throws you forward.
posted by Seth # 8:53 PM
Well well well. It seems there may be a decent chance that if you're reading this you are Mike, one of his gay friends I don't know or someone else referred to it.

This will be addressed.

I don't mind people reading my stuff, i like to share my thoughts and opinions with whoever is willing to listen, as LONG as they're willing to listen without insisting i digest all their bullshit. Now keeping that in mind, if you are one of the people i mentioned in paragraph one that is fine. But if you're reading this because its 'contraversial' or some shit then this is what i have to say.

(But in order for my non-knowledgeable friends I will first elucidate them. Mark recently pointed out something to me in ex roomate's Profile [we'll call him micah hues for the sake of anonymity] and it is quoted below...

Here's a weblog of an old roomie of mine. If you have roughly 10 minutes of time to spare and have some sort of stand on religion, then I recommend that you read it. Keep in mind as you read, that he is very knowledgeable in both the Bible and opposing opinions. But I would also like to point out, that as a general rule people lash out at things they are threatened by and do not completely understand.

Now he is referring to my october 11th entry lashing out at stupid religious billboards and gay church marquees. We'll get to that, and we'll get to the little end message.)

That thread has nothing to do with your religious beliefs unless you are either A: a dumb cliche, B: a shallow self righteous prick who thinks that 'god is awesome' shirts are cool, or C: A dumb cliche that is also a shallow self righteous prick who thinks that 'god is awesome' shirts are cool

Consider what i was making fun of...still can't work it out for yourself? If not its called the dregs my friend, the pitiful wasted attempts that for some reason work on the exceptionally weak minded and guilty. I do not give a damn about the majority of douche bag attempts to shit on atheism because they are made by half-witted pricks and people that are either incapable of seeing logic or being wholly bound to it. If you happen to be a Christian that's fine with me. I'm an atheist, we can get along if we just leave that area alone. But not everyone wants to let sleeping dogs lie, and that's who i was attacking.

I'm sure a lot of people would be offended by some of the slogans, Christian or otherwise. They ARE offensive, making a shitty slogan up and attributing it to the almighty creator of the universe is wrong. There is a word for that its called 'lying' or if you wanna be more specific 'horrifically blasphemous lying.' Now there is a double standard here, I can make something up and say that God never said that. You might get offended if it was 'for God so loved the world...' but then again, i don't know either way. The point is, neither do you.

I'm pretty sure he's not to keen on the whole 'knee mail' shit.

Now i'm going to draw what we call a parallel analogy. Take this situation here: There is a guy. This guy LOVES music, specifically he loves beethoven. Now Bach and Mozart are good too, but this guy deep down knows Beethoven is the best and most beautiful music in the whole wild world. If you insulted Ludwig Van he would probably get a bunch of his friends together and burn your house down. What do you think would happen if you told him this exact phrase 'Britney Spears is a whore and her music is dirty shit only existing to fill the wallets of greedy corporate assholes.'

If he spoke english he'd probably say 'yeah, no shit.' If that was annoying or offensive you might wonder 'just what the hell kind of music lover are you?' You might also infer that there is some ulterior motive for his liking both beethoven and britney spears, just because they are music.

How does this relate? The music lover in the example is the potential Christian that would read my post and how he'd react is the second part. If a real Christian cares about the deep and meaningful relationship with God that the faith professes I can see him getting a little peeved about people whoring their religion out to the masses. Speaking of whoring, as a kind of romantic guy (you have to get to know me to figure that out) I get irritated to see when girls flaunt their shit as an attempt to draw the attention of as many people as possible. That's bad enough, but when she turns out to be a cock tease in a wonderbra and slimming hose that's even worse. That is also a metaphor for my experience with religon.

Oh and lets not forget the cute attempts at cudgeling my reason for writing the Oct 11th spiel in the first place. "But I would also like to point out, that as a general rule people lash out at things they are threatened by and do not completely understand"

Well Mike, since an insecure and mediocre example of humanity at large feels fit to question my judgment lets look at what I do understand.

Hypocrisy: Have you ever heard of a good Christian that...has premarital sex, sleeps through class, brags about how he believes girls to find him attractive and did not go to church the ENTIRE semester that we lived together (when i was around anyways) and on top of all that managed to delude himself into thinking my ex was interested in him on the basis of two non-personal conversations?

I'm not answering that, but think about it. Lets also look at what else seems to offend these people and why i just can't seem to muster enough zeal to want to kill or oppress people for them.

Premarital sex: people have done this for as long as we have been people. Until recently there were no real good ways (unless you dig on condoms made from sheep intestines) to keep a girl from getting pregnant. So its no wonder that people didn't want young kids fucking eachother all the time until they were ready according to social norms and customs. Now there are, don't be a bitch and get a girl knocked up and what harm could come from it. Unfortuneately people haven't quite gotten over their jealousy about all these hot easy sluts we have these days and so you get abstinence only education programs and shit like that. Speaking of sex...

Homosexuality: Ask anyone what is wrong with being gay, you might get 'its unnatural, maybe its even evil.' But there are a few confounding variables which make this flimsy bullshit assertion smell a little more like what it is. Consider a male born without the gene to activate testosterone...he would not be recognized as a male at all. This person, i'll say she, would be completely female in appearence and development. There would be problems with the genitals but it would still be a genetic male that looks incredibly female. What if you fucked her, would that make you gay? Yes it would, because she's a dude. You fucked a dude, hell it may have happened to me or to any of you. Oh but its about dominance when dogs do it, no other animals on earth engage in homosexual activity you say...wrong again. Look at bonobos, they're a fun punch of primates commonly called 'pygmy chimpanzees' and man they make the wildest roman orgy look like an everyday occurence. There is no sodomy (mind they don't really have access to KY) but there is oral sex and promiscuity in both sexes. Now if you wanted you could say 'hey that means there IS some biological precedent which may be a part of our genetic makeup' but you probably don't believe in evolution either.

Evolution: You're dumb if you don't, i'm sorry but I just don't see the need to argue this any more. Yes 5.99 billion people can be wrong, and yes they probably are. But this isn't a why question, its a how question. Creationism is a why and and how, don't confuse the two. Doesn't mean we came from nothing, means we maybe don't understand how it happened but i guarantee that in a few hundred years people that don't believe in evolution are going to be as rare and considered as ignorant as the people that told galileo the earth was the center of the universe.

Mediocrity: Yeah, you probably haven't seen this coming yet but here it is. If you need a God so badly that you can ridicule others for not believing without even following the rudiments of His supposed wishes then you are a douche bag. There are many other things I could call you but that's oddly appropriate. I don't lash out because I don't understand, I lash out because I DO understand. And you embrace not because you understand, but because you don't understand.

I make no claim to the higher secrets of the universe, but the lower ones are right in front of your fucking eyes. And just because you can't handle looking into the cold black possibility that there is no one out there watching out for you doesn't make it any less true.

Now, go pray for my soul you whiny fuck.

posted by Seth # 2:07 PM

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